Taktilne karte

Taktilne karte

While the new millennium has made significant progress on map making and mapping, with the emphasis on producing maps on digital and two-dimensional printed maps, the acquisition and production of tactical maps can still be a challenge. Millions of Google Maps are used every day. Free ticketing software is available, creating a thrill of newspaper mapping.

Some of the key efforts that have been made over the past two thousand years of cartographic history have been identified and some of these advances are being built into the design and production of tactile cards. The basic principle of the argument is that we should not ignore the long and rich cartographic tradition or finding and repeating the successful applications that came from it. We should not assume that cartographic theory and methods do not apply to tactile maps, since cartographic basics are not just one type of map. The cartographic process considers different groups of cartographic readers / users and their different needs, type of map, available data and the way of using them. The achieved cartographic communication process is not directed at any type of map or any user group. Therefore, tactical mapers and tactile card readers are involved in the process, theories and methods.

It's important to differentiate the types of maps. While cartographers develop different types of maps, there are two general categories. The categories referred to as reference maps and thematic maps differ depending on how the maps are used and the type of information they represent.

Reference maps are usually larger (ie show less geographic area and more details) from thematic maps. Referential maps represent durable ecological features, natural and anthropogenic, in other words, and charts depict the location of tangible features such as roads, rivers, buildings, or sidewalks. These maps are often used to identify the reference points of the environment. There are two common examples of the aforementioned topographic map of the USGS and a common city map of the street, which is often used for targeted travel (ie coming from one place to another). Street maps provide more than just information and improve spatial skills by requiring the user to develop an understanding of relative and absolute spatial location features (ie distance, direction, order, etc.). Street maps also serve as aids for the person to travel in the real environment. During the process of using maps, maps provide an essential look or reference point whereby a traveler registers sights (which are recognized through kinesthetic, auditory, tactile or odorous signs) as they encounter during environmental research. These maps provide a valuable resource for travelers accessing an unknown or less known area. Researchers have found that the task of traveling and learning environment can make it much more effective and easier if blind or poorer users of maps use a tactile map before and during navigation.

In the second category, thematic maps are those that represent data or topics such as population or income. These maps provide an important tool in education and understanding geographically distributed phenomena. The materials used in the class of science and social sciences for students who are visible almost always include different maps. However, the same educational materials are simply not used to the same extent by students who are blind or have a poorer vision. There may be a limited number of maps with very general geographic levels, but these limited materials prevent adequate representation and, consequently, appropriate teaching on the socioeconomics of a country (maps representing national and individual levels on different socio-economic areas (eg population, age, Gender, economics, education ...).

While literally millions of themed maps are available for free download by users who have good health, but this does not apply to tactile cards.

Cartographic conventions
The convention concept refers to the usual mode of operation, meaning that mapping conventions describe access to map formatting that adheres to some basic, repeated guidelines. These guidelines relate to several map elements such as title, card scale, legend / key, text size, placement text and symbols (including selection, design, and placement). Using cartographic conventions results in predictability and recognition for card readers, enabling them to focus on map content rather than chart design. Therefore, the key question for the development of cartographic conventions for tactical maps is repeated.

A tactical map
Travel is a fundamental human activity. Travels are usually carried out from and to locations that are known as part of a repetitive daily activity, such as going from home to work, grocery or school. Although sometimes you should go to a strange place, such as visiting a new dentist, shopping or going to a new town, recurring daily trips are unlikely to be carried out with the help of the ticket. However, traveling to new places can be more effective with the use of the map. So where does a person need a printed map? Ten years ago, most street cards were still printed and acquired by mapping companies, travel agencies or government agencies. Today, most prints are printed and printed individually via online map sources, such as Google Maps.

In parallel, tactical maps used by people who are blind or have a poorer vision can be difficult to access. This difficulty is the result of a combination of factors that include production costs, manufacturing difficulties, low purchasing power and too few people who have access to and expertise in production (Dahlberg, 1997, Perkins & Gardiner, 1997, Sierkierska et al.). Support and access to tactile cards is inadequate. This lack of access and support results in virtual non-profitability of tactile cards. Tactile maps are useful not only for individual recreational trips, but also for the orientation and training of the mobility of weak persons. Currently, weak-minded persons and teachers have two methods for purchasing tactile cards. One of the methods is to buy tickets from some or tactile ticketing companies. Often, these maps are expensive and can be longer in delivery due to custom orders and too few manufacturers. The second method is manual mapping (eg collage, engraved or hand drawn microcapsule cards). These manufacturing processes are tense and result in maps that are not ideal for reuse in tasks such as orientation and mobile lessons.

The importance of standardization in symbology

We have selected the symbols as the first focus because they are features that represent geographic reality and data. They contain the meaning that must be deciphered and transformed to the card reader. If the same feature (such as water-related water) is different from a tactile map to a tactile map, each time a tactile card reader takes over a new tactical map, it will have to spend the time studying and comparing the key to the map instead of easily navigating On the map.

The production of a tactile map can be a difficult process, mainly because almost every stage of the process is complicated, and theoretically (as detected in cartographic communication) and mechanically (due to the lack of available production resources). The conjectural and systematic use of the chart symbolics stems from one reason: the user maps should focus on geography learning rather than focus on re-learning symbology every time a new map is found.

Our tactical maps through collaboration with blind centers are being developed to make tactile cards and graphics production easier for the general population to move. Maps will include a tactile set of symbols so that all products created with us are consistent and easy to read. With our project, we hope that mapping will be made available to everyone, and in this process, we will increase the number and adaptability of tactile resources available to populations that are blind or faint-hearted.

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